C2-Wakes research project

Project title: C2-Wakes – Controlled Cluster Wakes – Control and Mitigation of Large Scale Wind Farm Effects.



The overall objective of the C²-Wakes project is to investigate whether and how large-scale wake effects can be reduced in the planned expansion of offshore wind energy and the yield of wind farm clusters can be increased. This is done firstly by conducting an extensive scanning lidar measurement campaign to measure -the influence of active wake deflection on wind farm and cluster wakes. On the other hand, the impact of novel wind turbine concepts and optimized wind farm layouts on cluster wake is investigated and which control approaches can contribute to the reduction of wind farm cluster effects and thus to the increase of the overall yield of wind farm clusters. Furthermore, the project also deals with the question which potentials exist to increase the wind farm yield by influencing the Global Blockage Effect (GBE). From the results, recommendations for action for industry and authorities to reduce large-scale wind farm effects are subsequently given.

Content and Methodology:

The project addresses issues of considerable relevance for the more efficient and economical use of wind energy at sea. In this subproject, on the one hand, a comprehensive measurement campaign with long-range lidar scanners is carried out together with the collaborative partners to identify the influence of wind farm control strategies on cluster wakes. On the other hand, numerical studies are conducted to investigate the factors influencing the occurrence and strength of the GBE and cluster wakes. For this purpose, large-eddy simulations are performed for different meteorological conditions, wind farm layouts and turbine technologies. From the simulation data and the measurement data obtained in the GloBE Kampgane, new parameterizations and superposition schemes for industrial models will then be investigated and validated.


  • Project type: Joint project
  • Term: 2023 – 2026
  • Financing: Funding by BMWK
  • Research partners: Fraunhofer IWES (coordinator), Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon Geesthacht, University of Tübingen, RWE Offshore Wind GmbH

University of Oldenburg
Institute of Physics – ForWind
Dr. Gerald Steinfeld
Küpkersweg 70
D-26129 Oldenburg

Tel: +49 (0)441 / 798-5073
Fax: +49 (0)441 / 798-5099
Email: wesys.office@uol.de

More information

C2-Wakes project at EnArgus (with information on project partners)